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LoRaWAN™ is a MAC protocol for a high capacity long range and Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN), LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and system architecture for the network, LoRa™ (Long Range) is a physical layer that enables the long-range communication link. LoRa is a modulation technique based on spread-spectrum techniques and a variation of Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS), which provides significantly longer range than the competing technologies

LoRaWAN™ Network Components

LoRaWAN™ network architecture is typically laid out in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways is a transparent bridge relaying messages between end-devices and a central network server in the backend, gateways are connected to the network server via standard IP connections while end-devices use single-hop wireless communication to one or many gateways.

• The endpoints are the elements of the LoRa network that are remotely located and where the sensing or control is undertaken, All end-point communication is generally bi-directional, but also supports operation such as multicast enabling software upgrade over the air or other mass distribution messages to reduce the on air communication time.
• LoRa gateway receives the communications from the LoRa endpoints and then transfers them onto the backhaul system
• Network Server manages the network, as it acts to eliminate duplicate packets, schedules acknowledgement, and adapts data rates

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